|Title||Adoption of Exclusive and Pooled TNC Services in Singapore and the U.S.|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Joanna Moody, Jinhua Zhao|
|Conference Name||Transportation Research Board 99th Annual Meeting|
|Conference Location||Washington, D.C.|
On-demand mobility services provided by transport network companies (TNCs) have experienced significant growth in adoption and diversification of services in major metropolitan cities around the world. This study synthesizes information on who uses TNC services, who (among these TNC users) are more likely to pool their trips, and what modes these services are replacing in the (metropolitan) U.S. and in Singapore. We find that the sociodemographics of TNC users in Singapore are similar to those in the U.S.: younger, highly educated, and higher income individuals are more likely to have used TNC services. Furthermore, younger individuals from households that do not own a car are more likely to have pooled in Singapore, while employment is another important predictor in the U.S. Concerning mode substitution, we find that, while TNC trips in the U.S. primarily induce additional trips or replace trips by public and nonmotorized transport, in Singapore they primarily replace personal/private vehicle trips. In Singapore, we explore mode substitution by exclusive and pooled TNC services separately, finding that pooled trips draw more from public and nonmotorized transport, while exclusive trips replace more personal/private vehicle trips. These results suggest that people in Singapore view exclusive and pooled TNC services as distinct travel options that may be more closely related to other private or public transport, respectively. Differences between the U.S. and Singapore highlight the importance of accounting for local context and suggests that the quality of all travel alternatives in the urban area will affect the mode substitution of TNC trips.