Dynamic Origin-Destination Prediction in Urban Rail Systems: A Multi-resolution Spatio-Temporal Deep Learning Approach

TitleDynamic Origin-Destination Prediction in Urban Rail Systems: A Multi-resolution Spatio-Temporal Deep Learning Approach
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsPeyman Noursalehi, Haris N. Koutsopoulos, Jinhua Zhao

Short-term demand predictions, typically defined as less than an hour into the future, are essential for implementing dynamic control strategies and providing useful customer infor- mation in transit applications. Knowing the expected demand enables transit operators to deploy real-time control strategies in advance of the demand surge, and minimize the impact of abnormalities on the service quality and passenger experience. One of the most useful applications of demand prediction models in transit is in predicting the congestion on station platforms and crowding on vehicles. These require information about the origin- destination (OD) demand, providing a detailed profile of how and when passengers enter and exit the service. However, existing work in the literature is limited and overwhelmingly focuses on forecasting passenger arrivals at stations. This information, while useful, is incomplete for many practical applications. We address this gap by developing a scalable methodology for real-time, short-term OD demand prediction in transit systems. Our proposed model consists of three modules: multi-resolution spatial feature extraction module for capturing the local spatial dependencies with a channel-wise attention block, auxiliary information encoding module (AIE) for encoding the exogenous information, and a module for capturing the temporal evolution of demand. The OD demand at time t, represented as a N × N matrix, is processed in two separate branches. In one branch we use the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to decompose the demand into its different time and frequency variations, detecting patterns that are not visible in the raw data. In the other, three convolutional neural network (CNN) layers are utilized to learn the spatial dependencies from the OD demand directly. Instead of treating each channel of the resultant transformation equally, we use a squeeze-and-excitation layer to weight feature maps based on their contribution to the final prediction. A Convolutional Long Short-term Memory network (ConvLSTM) is then used to capture the temporal evolution of demand. The approach is demonstrated through a case study using 2 months of Automated Fare Collection (AFC) data from the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway (MTR) system. The extensive evaluation of the model shows the superiority of our proposed model compared to the other compared methods.