Understanding the Usage of Stationless Bike Sharing in Singapore

TitleUnderstanding the Usage of Stationless Bike Sharing in Singapore
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsYu Shen, Xiaohu Zhang, Jinhua Zhao
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Transportation
Keywordsbuilt environment, Data mining, GPS, spatiotemporal analysis, Stationless bike sharing

A new generation of bike-sharing services without docking stations is currently revolutionizing the traditional bike-sharing market as it dramatically expands around the world. This study aims at understanding the usage of new dockless bike-sharing services through the lens of Singapore's prevalent service. We collected the GPS data of all dockless bikes from one of the largest bike sharing operators in Singapore for nine consecutive days, for a total of over 14 million records. We adopted spatial autoregressive models to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of bike usage during the study period. The models explored the impact of bike fleet size, surrounding built environment, access to public transportation, bicycle infrastructure, and weather conditions on the usage of dockless bikes. Larger bike fleet is associated with higher usage but with diminishing marginal impact. In addition, high land use mixtures, easy access to public transportation, more supportive cycling facilities, and free-ride promotions positively impact the usage of dockless bikes. The negative influence of rainfall and high temperatures on bike utilization is also exhibited. The study also offered some guidance to urban planners, policy makers, and transportation practitioners who wish to promote bike-sharing service while ensuring its sustainability.