Advanced Mobility Management, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART)

Funding: Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), 2016-2020

As part of the Future Urban Mobility (FM) IRG of the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), the team led by Prof. Zhao combine behavioral science and transportation technology to envision a future urban mobility system for Singapore that integrates public transit, walking and bicycling, shared mobility and autonomous vehicles. The current phase of the project consists of four topics: 1. examining the formation process of people’s preference for autonomous vehicles (AV); 2. monitoring the emotional and physiological responses during the AV ride; 3. designing the integration of on-demand AV service with public transport systems; and 4. social mobility sharing: joint optimization of network efficiency and preference for human interaction.

Topic #1 Preference Formation for Autonomous Vehicle: Stated Preference Surveys Before and After Actual Trial Rides. The project aims to study the formation process of people's preference for autonomous vehicles (AV). In the short term, we will implement multiple stages of stated preference surveys before and after the trial ride of the AV prototypes to examine how people learn and adapt to the new transportation technology in the context of last mile modal choices.

Topic #2 Electroencephalograph (EEG) and Physiological Measures of Emotional Responses to Autonomous Vehicle using EEG Neuroheadset. The project aims to measure and analyze people’s emotional responses when riding autonomous vehicles in various traffic conditions. We will use electroencephalograph (EEG) neuro-headset as the main measurement and other physiological measures to corroborate. Link to Cluster 2 Emotional Travel

Topic #3 Integrating Autonomous Vehicles with Public Transit Service: Last Mile Service to MRT Stations The project aims to design and test the new mobility scenarios in which Autonomous Vehicles are embedded in the public transit system. We will simulate the on-demand last mile service to/from Singapore MRT stations, testing a variety of business, operation, pricing and regulation models with different degrees of mixture between autonomous vehicles and public transit services. Link to Cluster 5 Governing Autonomous Vehicles

Topic #4 Social Mobility Sharing: Joint optimization of Network Efficiency and Preference for Human Interaction. This project examines the dynamic mobility sharing from the perspective of social interaction, and develops human-centric ride sharing systems that respect both network efficiency and individuals’ preferences (or lack of) for human interaction. Link to Cluster 1 Social Mobility Sharing


The Distributional Effects of Lotteries and Auctions —License Plate Regulations in Guangzhou, Wang, Shenhao, and Zhao Jinhua , Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, (Submitted)

Lotteries and auctions are common ways of allocating public resources, but they have rarely been used simultaneously in urban transportation policies. This paper presents a unique policy experiment in Guangzhou, China, where lotteries and auctions are used in conjunction to allocate vehicle licenses. Guangzhou introduced vehicle license regulations to control the monthly quota of local automobile growth in 2012. To obtain a license, residents are required to choose between the lottery and... more

Integrating Shared Autonomous Vehicle in Public Transportation System, Shen, Yu, Zhang Hongmou, and Zhao Jinhua , Transportation Research Part A, (Submitted)

This paper proposes and simulates an integrated autonomous vehicle (AV) and public transportation system. After discussing the attributes of and the interaction among the potential stakeholders in the system, we identify possible opportunities for synergy between AVs and the public transportation system based on Singapore’s organizational structures. Envisioning an integrated system in the context of the first-mile problem during morning peak hours, we propose to preserve high demand bus... more

Mobility Sharing as a Preference Matching Problem, Zhang, Hongmou, and Zhao Jinhua , Transportation Research Part B, (Submitted)

Traffic congestion, dominated by single-occupancy vehicles, reflects not only transportation system inefficiency and negative externalities, but also a sociological state of human isolation. Advances in information and communication technology are enabling the growth of real-time ridesharing to improve system efficiency. While ridesharing algorithms optimize passenger matching based on efficiency criteria (maximum number of paired trips, minimum total vehicle-time or vehicle-distance... more

The Tradeoff Between Efficiency and Fellow Passenger Preference: a Preference-Based Ridesharing Model, Zhang, Hongmou, and Zhao Jinhua , Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Conference, Washington, D.C., (2017)

Advances in information technology are enabling the growth of real-time ridesharing—whereby passengers are paired up on car trips to improve system efficiency by using fewer cars. Lesser known, however, are the opportunities of shared mobility as a tool to foster and strengthen human interactions. The nature of shared car rides is impromptu, captive for a considerable duration, and remarkably more intimate, representing a unique juxtaposition of spontaneity and intensity. While ridesharing... more

An Urban Agenda for Autonomous Vehicles: Embedding Planning Principles into Technological Deployment, Freemark, Yonah, and Zhao Jinhua , Working paper, (2017)


The deployment of autonomous vehicles (AVs) has spawned a considerable literature on the role of national and state-level governments in regulating components of AV manufacturing, emissions, safety, licensing, and data sharing. These provide insight into how AVs can be integrated into the current transportation system. Yet the potential for local governments to shape their futures through AV policies is underexplored. This paper argues that it is both necessary and feasible for... more

Simulating the First Mile Service to Access Train Stations by Shared Autonomous Vehicle, Shen, Yu, Zhang Hongmou, and Zhao Jinhua , Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Meeting, (2017)

This paper studies the potential impacts of autonomous vehicle (AV) sharing with mobility-on demand service on the public transit system. We analyze the current travel demand in the public transit system in Singapore with a special focus on the first-/last-mile problem during morning peak hours. The first-/last-mile in this paper is defined as the gap between origin/destination and the heavy rail stations. A feasible method to integrate AV sharing in current transit system is proposed, which... more

Dynamic Pricing in Shared Mobility on Demand Service and its Social Impacts Master of Science in Transportation, Qiu, Han , Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 06/2017, Volume Master of Science in Transportation , Cambridge, MA, (2017)

In this thesis, we formulate and solve a profit maximization problem of shared mobility on demand service operations, and investigate the impact of such operations on performance of transportation system with a carefully designed case study. It is shown that our approach can generate much more profit than other basic strategies, though it has negative impacts on system performance, such as increasing congestion level and reducing capacity provided. We also consider possible regulation... more


Banani Anuraj's picture
Research Engineer SMART
Yu Shen's picture
Postdoc Associate (SMART FM)
Shenhao Wang's picture
PhD Student
Hongmou Zhang's picture
PhD Student
Zhan Zhao's picture
PhD Candidate
Jinhua Zhao's picture
Edward H. and Joyce Linde Assistant Professor