Emotional Travel

Transportation is often seen as a mundane daily chore. However at JTL we appreciate travel as charged with emotional and attitudinal associations, such as car pride, car dependence, environmental consciousness, implicit social bias in mode choice, anxiety while waiting for a bus, and nervousness or excitement when riding an autonomous vehicle. We contend that such cognizance has substantive impact on how we understand travel with behavioral realism, and how we change behavior with more creative technology and policy instruments. We bring social psychology to bear on travel behavior, examining the emotional and attitudinal motivations underlining travel decisions, comparing mobility cultures across different countries, and embedding them in the transportation system and policy design.

Understanding Car Pride, Zhao, Zhan , Dept. of Civil Engineering, Volume Master of Applied Science, Vancouver, (2013)

More than a tool that provides mobility, the car is also a commodity with symbolic values related to the sense of self-regard. To various degrees, people pride themselves on being car owners or users. Based on a literature review primarily of a plethora of psychological theories, this thesis proposes a framework that defines the concept of car pride, examines the process of its formation, and classifies different types of car pride. Car pride is measured using data collected from a survey in...

Seniors' Perceptions Around Driving Cessation: A Multi-Ethnic, Multi-Cultural Perspective, Curro, Maria , School of Community and Regional Planning, 2012, Volume MA, Vancouver, (2012)

For the great majority of Canadian seniors the private automobile is the primary form of mobility, providing seniors accessibility, freedom and independence. The aging process often leads to a decline and/or compromises the ability to safely drive, resulting in the cessation of driving and/or need to cease driving. Given the importance of the private automobile and the negative consequences associated with driving cessation, a vast literature base exists examining seniors’ perceptions around...

My brain at the bus stop: an exploratory framework for applying EEG-based emotion detection techniques in transportation study, Li, Zelin, Duarte Fabio, Zhao Zhan, and Zhao Jinhua , Transportation Research Part F, (Submitted)

Emotion has important implications on travel decisions and behaviors. Emotions related to transportation have usually been assessed using opinion-based and other qualitative methods. The advances in electroencephalographic (EEG) algorithms and hardware now provide new possibilities for assessing emotions in real time and using quantitative data. This paper describes the features of the EEG-based emotion detection technique, presents a framework for the experiment design process, and...

Implicit and Explicit Measures of Social Status Bias in Mode Choice, Moody, Joanna , (2016)

Transportation planners routinely rely on surveys or other self-report measures to understand people’s mode choice attitudes. This understanding helps shape informational campaigns and other policy interventions to nudge travel behaviour toward more sustainable modes and away from single-occupancy, gasoline-powered vehicles. However, respondents may hold implicit attitudes that differ from their expressed answers to surveys because of social desirability bias, self-enhancement, or self-...

Senior’s Driving Cessation: A Multi-Ethnic, Multi-Cultural Perspective, Curro, M., and Zhao Jinhua , 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, 11/2012, Cincinnati, OH, (2012)

For the great majority of Canadian seniors the private automobile is the primary form of mobility, providing seniors accessibility, freedom and independence. The aging process often leads to a decline and/or compromises the ability to safely drive, resulting in the cessation of driving and/or need to cease driving. Given the importance of the private automobile and the negative consequences associated with driving cessation, a vast literature base exists examining seniors’ perceptions around...

‘Car Pride’ in New York City vs. Houston: Towards a Cross-Cultural Comparison, Moody, Joanna, Li jintai, and Zhao Jinhua , (2016)

Presented at the 56th Annual Conference of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning (ACSP), Portland, OR, 2016

Transportation planners routinely rely on surveys or other self-report measures to understand people’s mode choice attitudes. This understanding helps shape informational campaigns and other policy interventions to nudge travel behavior toward more sustainable modes and away from single-occupancy, gasoline-powered vehicles. However, respondents may hold implicit...

Geography of ‘Car Pride’ in New York and Houston, , (2017)

Accepted for presentation at the Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, April 5-9, 2017.

Measuring Modal Preference in the U.S. and Singapore: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Implicit Association Test and Traditional Survey Techniques, , (2017)

Accepted for presentation at the 11th International Conference on Transport Survey Methods, Esterel, Quebec, Canada, September 24-29, 2017

Car Pride: Psychological Structure and Behavioral Implications, Zhao, Zhan, and Zhao Jinhua , Transportation Research Part A, Washington, D.C., (Submitted)

To various degrees, people take pride in owning or using cars which have symbolic values related to the sense of self-regard. However, little is known regarding what constitute car pride and how it is related to travel behavior if at all. This paper intends to provide a better understanding of car pride, by discussing its psychological structure and investigating its behavioral implications. We propose a framework to define the concept of car pride, examine the process of its formation, and...

Capturing Hidden Attitudes: Introducing the Implicit Association Test to Transportation Planning (working paper), Moody, Joanna, and Zhao Jinhua , (2017)

Transportation planners routinely rely on surveys or other self-report measures (revealed preference or stated preference) to understand people’s travel preference and attitudes. This understanding is fundamental in designing policy interventions toward more sustainable travel choice. However, respondents may hold implicit attitudes that differ from their expressed answers to surveys because of social desirability bias, self-enhancement, or self-ignorance. This mismatch between attitudes...

A Subjective Measure of Car Dependence, Zhao, Jinhua , Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Volume 2231, p.44–52, (2011)

A subjective measure of car dependence was developed on the basis of people's own assessment of their reliance on car use. The measure supplements the commonly used objective measure on the basis of actual car use. Structural equation models (SEMs) were estimated to quantify the subjective dependence and to examine its determinants: demographics, socioeconomics, and land use and transit access. The comparison between subjective dependence and actual car use disclosed significant differences...

Customer Loyalty Differences Between Captive and Choice Transit Riders, Zhao, Jinhua, Webb Valerie, and Shah Punit , Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Volume 2415, p.80–88, (2014)

Traditionally, efforts to increase the customer base of public transportation agencies have focused primarily on attracting first-time users. Customer retention, however, has many benefits not often realized. Loyal customers provide recommendations to others, increase and diversify their use of the service, and do not require acquisition costs associated with new customers. An earlier study identified key drivers of customer loyalty, with the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) in Illinois as a...

Measuring Explicit and Implicit Social Status Bias in Car vs. Bus Mode Choice, Moody, Joanna, Goulet Langlois Gabriel, Alexander Lauren, Campbell Jonathan, and Zhao Jinhua , 95th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, 08/2015, Washington, D.C., (2016)

With results from an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and sociodemographic, travel behavior, and Likert-scale survey questions, we investigate implicit and explicit social status biases in the context of mode choice between car and bus. Using a novel two-part experimental design, the differences between implicit and explicit measures of bias are examined to understand how the IAT may complement or improve upon traditional survey methods to capture attitudinal biases. We find that explicit...

A Ride to Remember: Experienced vs. Remembered Emotion on Public Transit, Bailey, Nathaniel, Doyle Timothy Patton, Ogunbekun Tolulope, and Zhao Jinhua , 95th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, 08/2015, Washington, D.C., (2016)

Prior research has shown disconnects between the subjective well-being a person experiences during an event and the subjective well-being the same individual remembers once the event has passed. Despite the differences that exist between experience and memory, memory is often used as a basis for making decisions about the future. Measures of utility in transportation decision models have begun to incorporate concepts of subjective well-being. A better understanding of the differences between...

Team Members

Joanna Moody's picture
MST Student
Chaewon Ahn's picture
PhD Student
Zhan Zhao's picture
PhD Candidate
Zelin Li's picture
MST/MCP Student
Jintai Li's picture
MCP Student
Jinhua Zhao's picture
Edward H. and Joyce Linde Assistant Professor